Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus approximately 11 kb in length belonging to the genus Vesiculovirus and Rhabdoviridae family. VSIV is a causative agent of vesicular stomatitis, a vector-borne disease of livestock (see also: Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus). Primarily affecting equids, disease in swine is also possible. Clinical signs include the development of vesicular (blister-like) lesions around the mouth, tongue, and coronary bands. While symptoms mild, lesions are near indistinguishable from foot and mouth disease, one of the most economically devastating viral diseases of livestock. Transmission of VSIV mainly occurs via biting insects, but spread can also occur from direct contact with virus-contaminated fluids. The disease is confined to the Americas with sporadic epizootic outbreaks occurring once every 2-10 years in the United States.