Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a single stranded, positive-sense RNA virus approximately 7.5 kb in length that is classified into the genus Enterovirus under the Picornaviridae family. SVDV is the causative agent of swine vesicular disease, a contagious viral disease of pigs clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases, such as foot and mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis. Disease is generally mild and mortality is negligible. Infected pigs, including subclinical animals, shed the virus with feces, contaminating the surrounding environment. First reported in Italy in 1966, multiple SVD epidemics have been observed in Europe and Asia. Strict import restrictions have thus far prevented the spread of SVDV to the United States.