First reported in the USA in 1999, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-1 (PRRSV-1) is a causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), an economically damaging disease of swine. Outbreaks of PRRS and successful isolation of the virus have been confirmed throughout North America, Europe, and China. PRRSV-1 is in the order Nidovirales and family Arteriviridae. The virus has a short (approximately 15 kb) single stranded, positive-sense RNA genome that encodes at least nine open reading frames. PRRSV-1, along with other members of the Arteriviridae, are characterized by narrow host ranges, primary replication in macrophages, chronic persistent infection, and a high degree of genetic diversity.
Notice: A recent proposal has reorganized Arteriviridae to five genera: Equartevirus (EAV), Rodartevirus (LDV + PRRSV-2), Simartevirus (SHFV + simian arteriviruses), Nesartevirus (an arterivirus from forest giant pouched rats), and Dipartevirus (common brushtail arterivirus). Within this proposal, PRRSV genotypes 1 and 2 have been assigned species status. Following standards established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), Type 1 PRRSV is now assigned the species name Betaarterivirus suid 1.