Overview of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
First reported in the USA in 1987, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), an economically damaging disease of swine. Outbreaks of PRRS and successful isolation of the virus have been confirmed throughout North America and Europe. PRRSV is in the order Nidovirales and family Arteriviridae. The virus has a short (approximately 15 kb) single stranded, positive-sense RNA genome that encodes at least nine open reading frames. PRRSV, along with other members of the Arteriviridae, are characterized by narrow host ranges, primary replication in macrophages, chronic persistent infection, and a high degree of genetic diversity.
Notice: A recent proposal has reorganized Arteriviridae to five genera (Equartevirus for EAV), Rodartevirus (LDV + PRRSV), Simartevirus (SHFV + simian arteriviruses), Nesartevirus (an arterivirus from forest giant pouched rats), and Dipartevirus (common brushtail arterivirus). Within this proposal, Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV have been assigned species status: for convienience, we maintain the use of Type 1 and Type 2 nomenclature in our database, but these will be replaced by updated taxonomy as dictated by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Currently (July 10, 2020), the ICTV classifications of Type 1 PRRSV is Eurpobartevirus Betaarterivirus suid 1 and Type 2 PRRSV is Ampobartevirus Betaarterivirus suid 2.